Hadiah Sastera Perdana Malaysia 2008/2009

Hadiah Sastera Perdana Malaysia 2008/2009
Penulis (Guru Cemerlang BM dan Munsyi Dewan) menerima Hadiah Sastera Perdana Malaysia 2008/2009 daripada YAB Tan Sri Dato' Hj. Muhyiddin Hj. Mohd Yassin, Timbalan Perdana Menteri Malaysia di Dewan Bankuet, Menara DBP, Kuala Lumpur pada 30 November 2010.

Saturday, October 30, 2010

Sajak - Kehidupan V

















Kehidupan V

Kehidupan
umpama dot-dot perjalanan
yang panjang
sesekali hadir
koma duka
koma bahagia
koma uzur
koma sihat
sebelum malaikatulmaut
mengirimi kita
warkah sakaratulmaut
sebelum simpang-siur
pengembaraan
di buana kehidupan
dinoktahkan
oleh dot!

Chai Loon Guan,
Tg.Malim.

Thursday, October 28, 2010

Pemudah Cara Seminar


















Seminar Sasterawan Felda Ke-3 - Abu Hassan Morad, novelis JULIA. Penulis dilantik sebagai pemudah cara seminar pada 20 Oktober 2010 di Bangunan Bitara, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, 35900 Tg.Malim. Selain Hj.Abu Hassan Morad, yang turut kelihatan ialah YBhg.Prof.Madya Dr.Talib Samat dan Tn.Hj.Zabidin Hj.Ismail, Presiden Persatuan Karyawan Perak (Karyawan Pk).

Monday, October 25, 2010

Seminar Pemikiran Pawang Ana



















Seminar Pemikiran Pawang Ana anjuran Persatuan Karyawan Perak (Karyawan Pk) dengan kerjasama Jabatan Kebudayaan dan Kesenian Negara, Negeri Perak, Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka Wilayah Utara, Yayasan Perak, Perbadanan Perpustakaan Awam Negeri Perak, JARO dan Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, Tg. Malim telah berlangsung dengan jayanya pada 25 Oktober 2010 bertempat di Auditorium Jabatan Kebudayaan dan Kesenian Negara, Negeri Perak Darul Ridzuan.

Sebanyak lapan kertas kerja utama telah dibentangkan oleh para sarjana dari USM, DBP, dan UPSI termasuk Tn.Hj.Zabidin Hj. Ismail, Presiden Persatuan Karyawan Perak (Karyawan Pk). Majlis penutupan rasmi telah disempurnakan oleh YB Dato' Zainol Fadzi bin Hj. Paharudin, Pengerusi Jawatankuasa Kebudayaan, Keseniaan, Belia dan Sukan Negeri Perak. Beliau turut melancarkan antologi sajak "Timoh Tasik Kenangan", menyaksikan persembahan multimedia dan berdarmawisata ke pameran "Pawang Ana dan Karyanya" di Perbadanan Perpustakaan Awam Negeri Perak.

Sesungguhnya seminar anjuran Persatuan Karyawan Perak kali ini yang dihadiri lebih daripada 200 orang peserta dari Melaka, Selangor Darul Ehsan dan Perak Darul Ridzuan, termasuk mahasiwa dan mahasiswi UPSI Tg.Malim telah berjaya mencapai matlamat sekali gus merealisasikan tema seminar, yakni "Memperkasakan ketokohan Pawang Ana semula sebagai tokoh penglipur lara Melayu tersohor".

Foto dan teks: Chai Loon Guan

Sunday, October 24, 2010

Pameran Robotik Antarabangsa 2010



















Pasukan Robotik (Senior) SMK Methodist, 35900 Tg.Malim telah menyertai "Exhibition for 5th Islamic Conference of Ministers of Higher Education and Scientific Research" pada 18 - 21 Oktober di KLCC. Syabas dan tahniah, anak-anak didik SMK Methodist, 35900 Tg.Malim.

Thursday, October 21, 2010

Seminar Pemikiran Pawang Ana


















Siaran Akhbar

Saudara Pengarang,


Sejarah ketokohan Penglipur Lara Negara, Pawang Ana yang telah tenggelam semenjak tahun 1914 akan dibangkitkan kembali dalam seminar Pemikiran Pawang Ana pada 25 Oktober 2010 di Auditorium Jabatan Kebudayaan dan Kesenian Negara, Negeri Perak, Jalan Raja Di Hilir, Ipoh mulai 8.30 pagi hingga 2.00 petang.
Sempena seminar, satu pameran bertajuk “Pawang Ana dan Karyanya” akan diadakan di ruang pameran Perpustakaan Awam Perak (bersebelahan lokasi seminar) yang akan mempamerkan biografi ringkas Pawang Ana serta karyanya termasuk ilustrasi wajah Pawang Ana oleh R.O Winstedt (bekas Pegawai Inggeris di Tanah Melayu) yang diterbitkan dalam Malayan Memories pada tahun 1916 London. Lakaran wajah Allahyarham dijumpai oleh mantan Karyawan Tamu, Universiti Malaya Mohd Zamberi Abdul Malek ketika membuat penyelidikan mengenai R.O Winstedt di London.
Di samping beberapa fakta tempatan, lakaran wajah Pawang Ana akan menarik ramai pengunjung ke pameran itu. Sebelum ini beliau hanya dikenali sebagai tokoh penutur sastera rakyat atau cerita-cerita lipur lara tetapi tiada pernah mana-mana pihak yang menerbitkan gambarnya.
Program ini mendapat sokongan kuat daripada Pengerusi Jawatankuasa Kebudayaan, Kesenian, Belia dan Sukan Perak, Dato’ Zainol Fadzi Paharudin dan akan merasmi penutup seminar tersebut. Penganjur utama ialah Persatuan Karyawan Perak [Karyawan Pk] dengan sokongan dan dokongan erat daripada Jabatan Kebudayaan dan Kesenian Perak, Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka Wilayah Utara, Yayasan Perak, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris (UPSI), Perbadanan Perpustakaan Awam Perak dan Persatuan Jalinan Rao Malaysia (JARO).
Sebanyak 20 kertas kerja akan dibentangkan oleh beberapa sarjana USM, UPSI dan Nanyang Universiti, Singapura termasuk dari Presiden Karyawan Pk, Zabidin Hj Ismail bertajuk “Biografi dan Sumbangan karya Pawang Ana”

Siapa Pawang Ana?

Pawang Ana juga seorang dukun dan pendekar. Dia berasal dari Rao, Sumatera Barat dan berhijrah ke Kg. Pulai Gopeng, Perak sekitar tahun 1850-an iaitu ketika arus kedatangan orang-orang Rao (Rawa) ke Perak. Menurut R.O Winstedt, Pawang Ana menggunakan kepakarannya berjaya menemui mayat Residen British di Perak, J.W.W Birch yang hanyut di Sungai perak setelah dibunuh pahlawan Melayu Pasir Salak. Selama tiga hari tiga malam Inggeris gagal menjumpai mayat tersebut.
Pawang Ana juga pernah menamakan Kg Batu Masjid, Temoh apabila kawasan itu dibuka oleh Lebai Tenggam pada tahun 1895.
Selaku tokoh Penglipur Lara tersohor, Pawang Ana telah menuturkan sebanyak lima cerita lipur lara dan telah dibukukan oleh R.O Winstedt iaitu Hikayat Raja Muda, Hikayat Malim Deman, Hikayat Malim Dewa, Hikayat Anggun Cik Tunggal dan Hikayat Awang Sulung Merah Muda. Kelima-lima cerita tuturan Pawang Ana telah dikategorikan sebagai karya agung oleh Yayasan Karyawan.

Seminar terbuka kepada awam serta terhad seramai 200 orang sahaja dan dikenakan bayaran RM10 untuk mengisi tabung Karyawan Pk. Keterangan lanjut hubungi Pn. Saliza 0125332170; Onn Abdullah 0165360864 ; Dr Talib Samat 0122269740.


Salam hormat

(HJ ZABIDIN HJ ISMAIL)
Presiden
Persatuan Karyawan Perak (Karyawan Pk)

Hp: 012-5070513
Faks 05.2544294




Lampiran:

Judul Kertas Kerja dan Penulis
o “Biografi dan Sumbangan Pawang Ana dalam Kesusasteraan Melayu Tradisional” - Zabidin Hj lsmail, (Presiden Persatuan Karyawan Perak)

o “Unsur-unsur Budaya Rao dalam Hikayat Anggun Cik Tunggal” - Prof Madya Dr.Talib Samat, (Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris / Timbalan Presiden Persatuan Karyawan Perak)

o “Pemikiran dan Gaya Bahasa Puitis dalam Hikayat Awang Sulung Merah Muda - Prof. Madya Datuk Paduka Dr. Mohd. Rosli Saludin (Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris)

o “Unsur Interteks dalam Hikayat Raja Muda dan Hikayat Malim Deman” - Dr.Bazrul Bahaman (Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris)

o “Pawang Ana dan Patriotisme Maritim Melayu- Prof. Madya Dr. Jelani Harun (Universiti Sains Malaysia)

o “Penerapan Teori-teori Terpilih dalam Mengkaji Hikayat-hikayat Tuturan Pawang Ana.” - Prof. Madya Dr. Abdul Rahman Napiah, (Universiti Teknologi Nanyang, Singapura).

o “Peranan dan Sumbangan R.O Winstedt dan A.J Sturrock dalam Mendokumentasikan Cerita-cerita Penglipur Lara Tuturan Pawang Ana.” - Mohd. Zamberi Malik, (Mantan Karyawan Tamu, Universiti Malaya).

o “Perbandingan Ketokohan Pawang Ana (Perak) dan Awang Batil (Perlis) - Mohamad Shahidan (Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka).

ATUR CARA PROGRAM
8.30 pagi : Pendaftaran Peserta / Sarapan
8.45 pagi : Ketibaan para tetamu / pembentang
8.55 pagi : Bacaan Doa

9.00 – 11.00 pg : Sesi 1

Zabidin Hj. Ismail (Karyawan Pk)
Mohd.Zamberi Malik
Prof.Madya Dr.Talib Samat (UPSI /Karyawan Pk)
Prof. Madya Dr Jelani Harun (USM)

Moderator:
Mohd Paris Arshad (IPG Kampus Ipoh/Karyawan Pk)

11.00 – 1.00 th: Sesi 2
Dr Shaharudin bin Shaari (IPG Kampus Ipoh)
Dr.Bazrul Bahaman (UPSI)
Prof.Madya Datuk Paduka Dr.Mohd.Rosli Saludin (UPSI)
Mohammad Shahidan (DBP)

Moderator:
Dr Rosli Sahat (IPG Kampus Ipoh)

1.00 ptg Majlis Perasmian /Penutupan
Ucapan Aluan;
Yang Berusaha Tuan Abdul Mutalib bin Abdul Rahman
(Pengarah Jabatan Kebudayaan dan Kesenian Negara Negeri Perak) .

Ucapan Perasmian / Penutupan
YB Dato’ Zainol Fadzi bin Haji Paharudin, DPCM.,PMP.,DSM.,ASDK.,
(Pengerusi Jawatankuasa Kebudayaan, Kesenian, Belia dan Sukan Negeri Perak)

Pelancaran buku “Timoh Tasik kenangan”
Persembahan Multimedia
Penyampaian Cenderamata
Lawatan ke pameran: “Pawang Ana dan Karyanya”
Jamuan Makan Tengah Hari

Bersurai
Posted by M Zaki Arif at 9:55 AM

Wednesday, October 20, 2010

Seminar Pemikiran Sasterawan Felda Ke-3 - UPSI 2010





















Jabatan Bahasa dan Kesusasteraan Melayu, Fakulti Bahasa dan Komunikasi, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, 35900 Tg.Malim dengan kerjasama Persatuan Karyawan Perak (Karyawan Pk), Persada dan Felda telah berjaya menganjurkan Seminar Pemikiran Sasterawan Felda Ke-3: Fokus Abu Hassan Morad bertempat di Bangunan Bitara, UPSI, 35900 Tg.Malim pada 20 Oktober 2010.

Teks dan foto: Chai Loon Guan.

Jamuan Perpisahan PPC MES 2010






















Jamuan perpisahan anjuran Persatuan Pengajian Cina, SMK Methodist, 35900 Tg.Malim telah berlangsung di Dewan A pada 15 Oktober 2010. Antara tetamu yang hadir ialah Yang Berusaha En.P.Yogarajan, AMN, Pengetua Cemerlang, En.S.Ganesan, PK Kokurikulum, En.Selvaraj, Guru Kaunseling, En.Tai Kim Ying, dan guru-guru penasihat persatuan yang diketuai oleh Pn.Yeoh Bee Bee.

Teks dan foto: Chai Loon Guan

Tuesday, October 19, 2010

Seni Batik



















Chai Wuang Shen dan rakan-rakan PSV BI-BM 2010, IPGM Kota Bharu, Pengkalan Chepa, Kelantan Darul Naim sedang menekuni seni batik tempatan.

Sunday, October 17, 2010

Madam (Mrs) Jothi


















Guru yang pernah mengajar aku tentang tulis dan baca. Tulisan cantik, tulisan jelas, tulisan sambung, tulisan italik, tulisan bersih dan tulisan menarik. Menurut beliau lagi, tulisan mencerminkan peribadi. Tulisan melambangkan watak dan perwatakan. Tanpa tulisan, lidah akan kelu berkata-kata. Tulisanlah yang telah menjadikan manusia bernawaitu untuk berkata-kata, berkarya, berinteraksi, berasmaraloka, dan berjaya dalam buana kerjaya dan cita-cita. Lisan tanpa tulisan ibarat rembulan tanpa bintang-bintang yang berkerdipan di mega-mega kehidupan!
Teks: Chai Loon Guan
Foto: MESA

Friday, October 15, 2010

Lembah Bujang
















Candi Lembah Bujang, Kedah, Malaysia.

Sejarah Awal
Lembah Bujang merupakan salah satu tempat bersejarah yang terkenal di Malaysia kerana mempunyai pelbagai khazanah tinggalan zaman. Kedudukan Lembah Bujang adalah merangkumi kawasan seluas 144 batu persegi dengan pembatasan Bukit Choras di bahagian Utara, Sungai Muda di bahagian Selatan, Selat Melaka di bahagian Timur dan Lebuhraya Utara - Selatan di bahagian Barat. Kedudukan ini dianggap strategik kerana amat sesuai dijadikan destinasi bersejarah.

Ramai pelancong yang datang ke Lembah Bujang tertarik dengan tinggalan sejarah di tapak arkeologi atau carigali seperti runtuhan candi, struktur bandar dan pelabuhan terpendam, ratusan ribu pecahan seramik, kaca dan manik dari China, Asia Barat atau Tanah Arab serta dari India, patung-patung dan arca, batu bersurat serta peralatan yang berkaitan dengan kehidupan masyarakat kuno. Penemuan semula semua artifak sejarah ini telah membuktikan bahawa telah wujudnya sebuah petempatan dan kerajaan pada masa yang lampau di Lembah Bujang.

Kawasan Lembah Bujang pernah dikaitkan dengan Kerajaan Kedah Tua. Kerajaan Kedah Tua dikatakan bermula dengan pembukaan petempatan di Lembah Bujang.

Nama Lembah Bujang adalah merujuk kepada perkataan Sanskrit iaitu nama pangkal "Bujang" atau "Bhujangga" yang bermaksud ular atau naga yang melambangkan kemakmuran sesuatu tempat. Kemakmuran Lembah Bujang telah menarik minat ramai pedagang, terutama daripada India, China dan Arab untuk singgah di sini. Manakala perkataan "Bhujangga" diambil daripada perkataan asal iaitu "Phujangga" yang membawa maksud golongan cerdik pandai atau "Brahmin" di dalam sistem kasta Hindu. Dengan erti kata lain, nama Lembah Bujang diambil daripada perkataan Sanskrit yang mempunyai pengaruh Hindu - Buddha.

Lembah bujang berkembang sebagai sebuah petempatan dan pelabuhan kerana mempunyai ciri-ciri yang istimewa. Kebiasaannya, sesebuah tempat atau kawasan dipilih sebagai petempatan adalah berdasarkan beberapa kriteria. Antaranya ialah mudah didatangi kerana kemudahan pengangkutan contohnya sungai dan jalan darat yang baik, terlindung daripada bencana semulajadi dan serangan lanun serta bekalan makanan yang mudah didapati.

Keadaan muka bumi Lembah Bujang sangat sesuai sebagai sebuah petempatan kerana mempunyai pantai dan tebing di sepanjang Sungai Merbok yang mudah dimudiki, jalan air semulajadi di sepanjang Sungai Muda dan cerun bukit yang membolehkan pedagang berlindung. Kemudahan jalan air ini dikatakan menarik minat pedagang-pedagang untuk singgah di Lembah Bujang. Pedagang-pedagang terutamanya dari China akan menggunakan jalan air ini sebagai jalan pintas untuk pergi ke pelabuhan kerajaan-kerajaan lain seperti Langkasuka dan Srivijaya. Selain itu, terdapat juga faktor-faktor lain yang menjadikan Lembah Bujang sebagai tempat yang penting pada abad ke-4 hingga abad ke-11. Antaranya ialah pedagangan yang wujud antara China dengan India.

Pedagang-pedagang dari kedua-dua negara ini memerlukan tempat untuk mereka bertukar-tukar barang dagangan. Selalunya, tempat yang terletak di pertengahan jalan perdagangan kedua-dua negara akan dipilih sebagai pelaburan pertukaran barang. Lembah Bujang dilihat sebagai tempat yang sesuai di kalangan para pedagang untuk dijadikan pelabuhan untuk bertukar dan menyimpan barang-barang.

Pedagang dari China juga menggunakan Sungai Merbok sebagai jalan pintas untuk bertukar barang di pelabuhan kerajaan-kerajaan lain terutamanya Langkasuka. Sungai Merbok digunakan kerana ia dapat menjimatkan masa untuk cepat sampai ke destinasi perdagangan berbanding dengan penggunaan Selat Melaka dan Laut China Selatan yang memaksa mereka mengelilingi seluruh Kepulauan Melayu.

Lembah Bujang juga berfungsi sebagai tempat menunggu pertukaran angin monsun di Selat Melaka dan Laut China Selatan. Keadaan laut bergelora serta ribut laut yang berlaku semasa Angin Monsun Barat Daya bertiup di Selat Melaka dan Angin Monsun Timur Laut di Laut China Selatan memaksa pedagang-pedagang mencari tempat untuk berlindung dan Lembah Bujang merupakan tempat yang sesuai untuk pedagang-pedagang berlindung.

Para pedagang juga turut berdagang dengan penduduk-penduduk tempatan di sekitar Lembah Bujang. Menurut H.G Quarith Wales, kawasan Lembah Bujang memang telah sedia didiami oleh masyarakat pribumi yang terdiri daripada Orang Asli dan mengamalkan sistem ekonomi sara diri bergantung kepada pertanian dan hasil hutan seperti damar, rotan dan kayu-kayan.

Barang-barang ini sangat diperlukan oleh para pedagang untuk perdagangan mereka, manakala masyarakat tempatan memerlukan barangan seperti kain, rempah, pinggan mangkuk, tembikar, barang pertukangan untuk keperluan harian mereka.

Masyarakat Asli ini menganuti fahaman animisme dan mudah menerima nilai-nilai baru. Ini memudahkan para pedagang yang membawa bersama mubaligh-mubaligh bagi mengembangkan ajaran agama masing-masing, sebagai contoh Pedagang India telah berjaya mengembangkan agama Hindu dan Buddha pada abad ke-5 di Lembah Bujang. Lembah Bujang seterusnya berkembang menjadi pusat penyebaran agama Hindu - Buddha yang terkenal kerana sikap terbuka penduduknya dan tiada langsung menerima penentangan daripada masyarakat tempatan.

Selain itu, Lembah Bujang juga berkembang sebagai petempatan dan pelaburan disebabkan oleh fungsi Gunung Jerai. Kedudukan Gunung Jerai yang merupakan gunung tertinggi di Barat Semenanjung Tanah Melayu menjadikan kawasan Lembah Bujang sebagai tempat penting.

Pedagang-pedagang telah menjadikan Gunung Jerai sebagai petunjuk arah dan panduan untuk mengelakan mereka sesat terutama pada waktu malam. Puncak Gunung Jerai dapat dilihat dengan jelas dari lautan.

Bagi pedagang dari India pula tertarik dengan keadaan berdekatan dengan Gunung Jerai terutama Lembah Bujang kerana mempunyai banyak air terjun dan subur untuk pertanian. Menurut ajaran agama Hindu, tempat tinggi seperti Kaki Gunung Jerai adalah tempat suci. Oleh itu, mereka memilih Lembah Bujang untuk mengembangkan Agama Hindu.

Abad ke-4 hingga abad ke-11 merupakan zaman kegemilangan Lembah Bujang. Lembah Bujang telah muncul sebagai sebuah pusat perdagangan terpenting di antara Laut Mediteranean dan China. Lembah Bujang pernah berada di bawah naungan Kerajaan Srivijaya. Ini membantu Lembah Bujang menjadi sebuah pelabuhan yang pesat.

Ramai pedagang yang singgah di sini untuk berdagang dan bertukar barang. Pedagang-pedagang China mengenali Kedah Tua atau Lembah Bujang sebagai "Yeh-po-ti" dan "Chieh Cha".

Pedagang India pula menggelarkan Lembah Bujang sebagai "Kataha", "Katahanagara", "Kidaram", "Kadaram" dan "Kalagam" manakala pedagang dari Arab mengenalinya sebagai "Kalah" atau "Qalha". Lembah Bujang juga terdapat di dalam catatan dan sumber bertulis Barat. Lembah Bujang dalam catatan Barat digelar sebagai "Quedah", "Quedaram", "Kheddah", "Gedda" dan sebagainya.

Peninggalan Agama Hindu - Buddha yang ditemui di Lembah Bujang merupakan kesan daripada proses kemasukan agama Hindu - Buddha melalui perdagangan. Ia juga menunjukkan bahawa "Proses Penghinduan" atau "Indianisasi" berlaku dengan ketaranya di utara Tanah Melayu.

Lamb (1959) telah mengemukakan beberapa peringkat perkembangan kebudayaan di Lembah Bujang dan kawasan sekitarnya.

Peringkat Perkembangan Awal Pengaruh Buddha.
Peringkat ini bermula pada abad ke-4. Kawasannya meliputi Bukit Meriam, Bukit Choras dan sekitar tepi pantai. Agama Buddha di bawa masuk melalui aktiviti perdagangan. Banyak candi dibina dan ditemui di kawasan-kawasan ini.

Peringkat Kegemilangan Kerajaan Srivijaya.
Pada abad ke-7 hingga abad ke-9, Lembah Bujang berada di bawah naungan Kerajaan Srivijaya. Lembah Bujang turut berkembang sebagai pusat perdagangan dan perkembangan agama Hindu di nusantara kerana kedudukannya yang berdekatan dengan Kerajaan Srivijaya.

Peringkat Pengkalan Bujang.
Peringkat ini merangkumi abad ke-10 hingga abad ke-14. Lembah Bujang telah mencapai taraf pelaburan entrepot. Agama Hindu-Buddha telah berkembang ke kawasan Matang Pasir, Merbok, Batu Lintang dan Tikam Batu.

Peringkat Kuala Muda.
Peringkat ini berlaku pada abad ke 14. Perubahan muara Sungai Muda telah menyebabkan perkembangan kebudayaan semakin malap. Candi-candi banyak dibina di kawasan pedalaman.
Ahli-ahli sejarah lain pula mengatakan agama Hindu-Buddha dibawa masuk ke Lembah Bujang melalui tiga tahap. Tahap pertama ialah tahap Buddha awal. Ia berlangsung dari abad ke-4 hingga abad ke-5. Mubaligh-mubaligh agama Buddha telah masuk untuk berdagang bersama pedagang-pedagang India.

Tahap kedua ialah tahap Hindu iaitu penganut Dewa Siva. Tahap ini berlaku dari abad ke-6 hingga abad ke-8. Pada masa ini, Kerajaan Srivijaya ialah pusat penyebaran agama Hindu yang terkenal. Ia sekaligus dibawa ke Lembah Bujang melalui aktiviti penaklukan, perkahwinan dan hubungan diplomatik. Pada masa itu, Lembah Bujang masih berada di bawah naungan Kerajaan Srivijaya. Lembah Bujang seterusnya menjadi pusat agama Hindu menggantikan Srivijaya.

Tahap yang terakhir ialah tahap Buddha aliran Mahayana. Ia bermula pada abad ke-9 hingga abad ke-14. Pada masa ini, penduduk tempatan telah berkemahiran membina candi dan menguasai tulisan India terutamanya tulisan "Pallawa".

Pengaruh Lembah Bujang mula merosot apabila agama Islam dibawa ke Tanah Melayu oleh pedagang-pedagang Arab dan kemunculan beberapa pelaburan baru seperti Melaka, Acheh, Singapura dan sebagainya. Penduduk sekitar Lembah Bujang mula menganut agama Islam dan menghapuskan bukti-bukti peninggalan agama Hindu-Buddha.

Selain itu, perubahan muara Sungai Muda dan sungai-sungai berdekatan yang semakin cetek menyebabkan pedagang beralih ke pusat perdagangan lain.

Penulisan sejarah di Kedah Tua amat bergantung kepada peninggalan-peninggalan arkeologi di Lembah Bujang. Proses carigali adalah salah satu kaedah arkeologi. Penyelidikan terhadap arkeologi di Lembah Bujang telah dimulakan pada sekitar tahun 1840an oleh Kolonel James Low. Penemuan ini menarik minat pengkaji-pengkaji lain untuk membongkar sejarah Kedah Tua.

Di sekitar Lembah Bujang sehingga hari ini, sejumlah 41 buah tapak arkeologi atau Tapak Tanah Bersejarah telah dikenalpasti.

Tapak arkeologi atau Tapak Tanah Bersejarah tadi mengandungi pelbagai tinggalan sejarah, seperti struktur atau jumpaan artifak sama ada berkaitan dengan perdagangan atau yang berkaitan dengan artifak keagamaan atau struktur bangunan candi.

Artifak perdagangan terdiri daripada pecahan seramik tembikar tanah, tembikar batu, porselin, kaca, manik serta peralatan yang digunakan oleh masyarakat kuno. Artifak keagamaan pula terdiri daripada candi, patung-patung dan arca.

Kebanyakan barang-barang yang ditemui ini dibuat daripada tanah liat. Bahan binaan untuk candi pula terdiri daripada batu bata, batu sungai, mineral laterit dan batu granit.

Terdapat beberapa candi yang terkenal di Lembah Bujang yang telah ditemui, antaranya ialah Candi Bukit Batu Pahat (Tapak 8), Candi Kampung Pangkalan Bujang (Tapak 19,21 dan 22), Candi Estet Sungai Batu (tapak 5 dan 11/3), Candi Kampung Pendiat (Tapak 16), Candi Kampung Permatang Pasir (Tapak 31) dan Candi Kampung Bendang Dalam (Tapak 50).

Candi-candi ini menjadi bukti bahawa Lembah Bujang pernah menjadi pusat penyebaran agama Hindu suatu ketika dahulu. Walau bagaimanapun, sebahagian daripadanya telah musnah dan struktur asalnya tidak dapat dibentuk semula daripada bencana alam seperti banjir, hakisan, Perang Dunia II ataupun dimusnahkan oleh penduduk tempatan. Namun begitu, candi-candi ini tetap menjadi tarikan utama pelancong dari dalam dan luar negara untuk mengunjungi Lembah Bujang.

DIAMBIL DARI http://memori-kedah.net/page_pengenalan.php?p=2&idstopic=47&idskandungan=190&mtopic=5
Add a caption
sesi mengenalkan warisan Malaysia - original from Malaysia ; Candi Lembah Bujang, Kedah, Malaysia.

Sejarah Awal
Lembah Bujang merupakan salah satu tempat bersejarah yang terkenal di Malaysia kerana mempunyai pelbagai khazanah tinggalan zaman. Kedudukan Lembah Bujang adalah merangkumi kawasan seluas 144 batu persegi dengan pembatasan Bukit Choras di bahagian Utara, Sungai Muda di bahagian Selatan, Selat Melaka di bahagian Timur dan Lebuhraya Utara - Selatan di bahagian Barat. Kedudukan ini dianggap strategik kerana amat sesuai dijadikan destinasi bersejarah.

Ramai pelancong yang datang ke Lembah Bujang tertarik dengan tinggalan sejarah di tapak arkeologi atau carigali seperti runtuhan candi, struktur bandar dan pelabuhan terpendam, ratusan ribu pecahan seramik, kaca dan manik dari China, Asia Barat atau Tanah Arab serta dari India, patung-patung dan arca, batu bersurat serta peralatan yang berkaitan dengan kehidupan masyarakat kuno. Penemuan semula semua artifak sejarah ini telah membuktikan bahawa telah wujudnya sebuah petempatan dan kerajaan pada masa yang lampau di Lembah Bujang.

Kawasan Lembah Bujang pernah dikaitkan dengan Kerajaan Kedah Tua. Kerajaan Kedah Tua dikatakan bermula dengan pembukaan petempatan di Lembah Bujang.

Nama Lembah Bujang adalah merujuk kepada perkataan Sanskrit iaitu nama pangkal "Bujang" atau "Bhujangga" yang bermaksud ular atau naga yang melambangkan kemakmuran sesuatu tempat. Kemakmuran Lembah Bujang telah menarik minat ramai pedagang, terutama daripada India, China dan Arab untuk singgah di sini. Manakala perkataan "Bhujangga" diambil daripada perkataan asal iaitu "Phujangga" yang membawa maksud golongan cerdik pandai atau "Brahmin" di dalam sistem kasta Hindu. Dengan erti kata lain, nama Lembah Bujang diambil daripada perkataan Sanskrit yang mempunyai pengaruh Hindu - Buddha.

Lembah bujang berkembang sebagai sebuah petempatan dan pelabuhan kerana mempunyai ciri-ciri yang istimewa. Kebiasaannya, sesebuah tempat atau kawasan dipilih sebagai petempatan adalah berdasarkan beberapa kriteria. Antaranya ialah mudah didatangi kerana kemudahan pengangkutan contohnya sungai dan jalan darat yang baik, terlindung daripada bencana semulajadi dan serangan lanun serta bekalan makanan yang mudah didapati.

Keadaan muka bumi Lembah Bujang sangat sesuai sebagai sebuah petempatan kerana mempunyai pantai dan tebing di sepanjang Sungai Merbok yang mudah dimudiki, jalan air semulajadi di sepanjang Sungai Muda dan cerun bukit yang membolehkan pedagang berlindung. Kemudahan jalan air ini dikatakan menarik minat pedagang-pedagang untuk singgah di Lembah Bujang. Pedagang-pedagang terutamanya dari China akan menggunakan jalan air ini sebagai jalan pintas untuk pergi ke pelabuhan kerajaan-kerajaan lain seperti Langkasuka dan Srivijaya. Selain itu, terdapat juga faktor-faktor lain yang menjadikan Lembah Bujang sebagai tempat yang penting pada abad ke-4 hingga abad ke-11. Antaranya ialah pedagangan yang wujud antara China dengan India.

Pedagang-pedagang dari kedua-dua negara ini memerlukan tempat untuk mereka bertukar-tukar barang dagangan. Selalunya, tempat yang terletak di pertengahan jalan perdagangan kedua-dua negara akan dipilih sebagai pelaburan pertukaran barang. Lembah Bujang dilihat sebagai tempat yang sesuai di kalangan para pedagang untuk dijadikan pelabuhan untuk bertukar dan menyimpan barang-barang.

Pedagang dari China juga menggunakan Sungai Merbok sebagai jalan pintas untuk bertukar barang di pelabuhan kerajaan-kerajaan lain terutamanya Langkasuka. Sungai Merbok digunakan kerana ia dapat menjimatkan masa untuk cepat sampai ke destinasi perdagangan berbanding dengan penggunaan Selat Melaka dan Laut China Selatan yang memaksa mereka mengelilingi seluruh Kepulauan Melayu.

Lembah Bujang juga berfungsi sebagai tempat menunggu pertukaran angin monsun di Selat Melaka dan Laut China Selatan. Keadaan laut bergelora serta ribut laut yang berlaku semasa Angin Monsun Barat Daya bertiup di Selat Melaka dan Angin Monsun Timur Laut di Laut China Selatan memaksa pedagang-pedagang mencari tempat untuk berlindung dan Lembah Bujang merupakan tempat yang sesuai untuk pedagang-pedagang berlindung.

Para pedagang juga turut berdagang dengan penduduk-penduduk tempatan di sekitar Lembah Bujang. Menurut H.G Quarith Wales, kawasan Lembah Bujang memang telah sedia didiami oleh masyarakat pribumi yang terdiri daripada Orang Asli dan mengamalkan sistem ekonomi sara diri bergantung kepada pertanian dan hasil hutan seperti damar, rotan dan kayu-kayan.

Barang-barang ini sangat diperlukan oleh para pedagang untuk perdagangan mereka, manakala masyarakat tempatan memerlukan barangan seperti kain, rempah, pinggan mangkuk, tembikar, barang pertukangan untuk keperluan harian mereka.

Masyarakat Asli ini menganuti fahaman animisme dan mudah menerima nilai-nilai baru. Ini memudahkan para pedagang yang membawa bersama mubaligh-mubaligh bagi mengembangkan ajaran agama masing-masing, sebagai contoh Pedagang India telah berjaya mengembangkan agama Hindu dan Buddha pada abad ke-5 di Lembah Bujang. Lembah Bujang seterusnya berkembang menjadi pusat penyebaran agama Hindu - Buddha yang terkenal kerana sikap terbuka penduduknya dan tiada langsung menerima penentangan daripada masyarakat tempatan.

Selain itu, Lembah Bujang juga berkembang sebagai petempatan dan pelaburan disebabkan oleh fungsi Gunung Jerai. Kedudukan Gunung Jerai yang merupakan gunung tertinggi di Barat Semenanjung Tanah Melayu menjadikan kawasan Lembah Bujang sebagai tempat penting.

Pedagang-pedagang telah menjadikan Gunung Jerai sebagai petunjuk arah dan panduan untuk mengelakan mereka sesat terutama pada waktu malam. Puncak Gunung Jerai dapat dilihat dengan jelas dari lautan.

Bagi pedagang dari India pula tertarik dengan keadaan berdekatan dengan Gunung Jerai terutama Lembah Bujang kerana mempunyai banyak air terjun dan subur untuk pertanian. Menurut ajaran agama Hindu, tempat tinggi seperti Kaki Gunung Jerai adalah tempat suci. Oleh itu, mereka memilih Lembah Bujang untuk mengembangkan Agama Hindu.

Abad ke-4 hingga abad ke-11 merupakan zaman kegemilangan Lembah Bujang. Lembah Bujang telah muncul sebagai sebuah pusat perdagangan terpenting di antara Laut Mediteranean dan China. Lembah Bujang pernah berada di bawah naungan Kerajaan Srivijaya. Ini membantu Lembah Bujang menjadi sebuah pelabuhan yang pesat.

Ramai pedagang yang singgah di sini untuk berdagang dan bertukar barang. Pedagang-pedagang China mengenali Kedah Tua atau Lembah Bujang sebagai "Yeh-po-ti" dan "Chieh Cha".

Pedagang India pula menggelarkan Lembah Bujang sebagai "Kataha", "Katahanagara", "Kidaram", "Kadaram" dan "Kalagam" manakala pedagang dari Arab mengenalinya sebagai "Kalah" atau "Qalha". Lembah Bujang juga terdapat di dalam catatan dan sumber bertulis Barat. Lembah Bujang dalam catatan Barat digelar sebagai "Quedah", "Quedaram", "Kheddah", "Gedda" dan sebagainya.

Peninggalan Agama Hindu - Buddha yang ditemui di Lembah Bujang merupakan kesan daripada proses kemasukan agama Hindu - Buddha melalui perdagangan. Ia juga menunjukkan bahawa "Proses Penghinduan" atau "Indianisasi" berlaku dengan ketaranya di utara Tanah Melayu.

Lamb (1959) telah mengemukakan beberapa peringkat perkembangan kebudayaan di Lembah Bujang dan kawasan sekitarnya.

Peringkat Perkembangan Awal Pengaruh Buddha.
Peringkat ini bermula pada abad ke-4. Kawasannya meliputi Bukit Meriam, Bukit Choras dan sekitar tepi pantai. Agama Buddha di bawa masuk melalui aktiviti perdagangan. Banyak candi dibina dan ditemui di kawasan-kawasan ini.

Peringkat Kegemilangan Kerajaan Srivijaya.
Pada abad ke-7 hingga abad ke-9, Lembah Bujang berada di bawah naungan Kerajaan Srivijaya. Lembah Bujang turut berkembang sebagai pusat perdagangan dan perkembangan agama Hindu di nusantara kerana kedudukannya yang berdekatan dengan Kerajaan Srivijaya.

Peringkat Pengkalan Bujang.
Peringkat ini merangkumi abad ke-10 hingga abad ke-14. Lembah Bujang telah mencapai taraf pelaburan entrepot. Agama Hindu-Buddha telah berkembang ke kawasan Matang Pasir, Merbok, Batu Lintang dan Tikam Batu.

Peringkat Kuala Muda.
Peringkat ini berlaku pada abad ke 14. Perubahan muara Sungai Muda telah menyebabkan perkembangan kebudayaan semakin malap. Candi-candi banyak dibina di kawasan pedalaman.
Ahli-ahli sejarah lain pula mengatakan agama Hindu-Buddha dibawa masuk ke Lembah Bujang melalui tiga tahap. Tahap pertama ialah tahap Buddha awal. Ia berlangsung dari abad ke-4 hingga abad ke-5. Mubaligh-mubaligh agama Buddha telah masuk untuk berdagang bersama pedagang-pedagang India.

Tahap kedua ialah tahap Hindu iaitu penganut Dewa Siva. Tahap ini berlaku dari abad ke-6 hingga abad ke-8. Pada masa ini, Kerajaan Srivijaya ialah pusat penyebaran agama Hindu yang terkenal. Ia sekaligus dibawa ke Lembah Bujang melalui aktiviti penaklukan, perkahwinan dan hubungan diplomatik. Pada masa itu, Lembah Bujang masih berada di bawah naungan Kerajaan Srivijaya. Lembah Bujang seterusnya menjadi pusat agama Hindu menggantikan Srivijaya.

Tahap yang terakhir ialah tahap Buddha aliran Mahayana. Ia bermula pada abad ke-9 hingga abad ke-14. Pada masa ini, penduduk tempatan telah berkemahiran membina candi dan menguasai tulisan India terutamanya tulisan "Pallawa".

Pengaruh Lembah Bujang mula merosot apabila agama Islam dibawa ke Tanah Melayu oleh pedagang-pedagang Arab dan kemunculan beberapa pelaburan baru seperti Melaka, Acheh, Singapura dan sebagainya. Penduduk sekitar Lembah Bujang mula menganut agama Islam dan menghapuskan bukti-bukti peninggalan agama Hindu-Buddha.

Selain itu, perubahan muara Sungai Muda dan sungai-sungai berdekatan yang semakin cetek menyebabkan pedagang beralih ke pusat perdagangan lain.

Penulisan sejarah di Kedah Tua amat bergantung kepada peninggalan-peninggalan arkeologi di Lembah Bujang. Proses carigali adalah salah satu kaedah arkeologi. Penyelidikan terhadap arkeologi di Lembah Bujang telah dimulakan pada sekitar tahun 1840an oleh Kolonel James Low. Penemuan ini menarik minat pengkaji-pengkaji lain untuk membongkar sejarah Kedah Tua.

Di sekitar Lembah Bujang sehingga hari ini, sejumlah 41 buah tapak arkeologi atau Tapak Tanah Bersejarah telah dikenalpasti.

Tapak arkeologi atau Tapak Tanah Bersejarah tadi mengandungi pelbagai tinggalan sejarah, seperti struktur atau jumpaan artifak sama ada berkaitan dengan perdagangan atau yang berkaitan dengan artifak keagamaan atau struktur bangunan candi.

Artifak perdagangan terdiri daripada pecahan seramik tembikar tanah, tembikar batu, porselin, kaca, manik serta peralatan yang digunakan oleh masyarakat kuno. Artifak keagamaan pula terdiri daripada candi, patung-patung dan arca.

Kebanyakan barang-barang yang ditemui ini dibuat daripada tanah liat. Bahan binaan untuk candi pula terdiri daripada batu bata, batu sungai, mineral laterit dan batu granit.

Terdapat beberapa candi yang terkenal di Lembah Bujang yang telah ditemui, antaranya ialah Candi Bukit Batu Pahat (Tapak 8), Candi Kampung Pangkalan Bujang (Tapak 19,21 dan 22), Candi Estet Sungai Batu (tapak 5 dan 11/3), Candi Kampung Pendiat (Tapak 16), Candi Kampung Permatang Pasir (Tapak 31) dan Candi Kampung Bendang Dalam (Tapak 50).

Candi-candi ini menjadi bukti bahawa Lembah Bujang pernah menjadi pusat penyebaran agama Hindu suatu ketika dahulu. Walau bagaimanapun, sebahagian daripadanya telah musnah dan struktur asalnya tidak dapat dibentuk semula daripada bencana alam seperti banjir, hakisan, Perang Dunia II ataupun dimusnahkan oleh penduduk tempatan. Namun begitu, candi-candi ini tetap menjadi tarikan utama pelancong dari dalam dan luar negara untuk mengunjungi Lembah Bujang.

(Sumber: http://memori-kedah.net/page_pengenalan.php?p=2&idstopic=47&idskandungan=190&mtopic=5)

UNIVERSITY OF MALAYA












UNIVERSITY OF MALAYA
(Dengan izin...)

The University of Malaya, the first local university, was established in 1962 to meet the higher education needs of the country. A year and a half later, in June 1963, the School of Education was formed.

The school offered the postgraduate Diploma in Education to graduates who chose to enter the teaching profession. The school expanded rapidly and was upgraded to the status of faculty in July 1965. The Masters of Education (M.Ed) programme was introduced for the first time two years later and this was followed by the Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D) programme in 1969.

Since its establishment, the Faculty of Education has successfully trained almost 20,000 graduates. From among them, more than 15,000 have graduated with the Diploma in Education, more than 1,000 with a Master degree and about 3,500 with a Bachelor in Education degree.

The Faculty is proactive in keeping pace with the ever-changing demands in the field of education. This includes the reappraisal of programmes and courses, curriculum revisions and departmental restructuring to accommodate new changes when necessary.

Favorite Quotations:

The worst part of life is waiting. The best part of life is having someone worth waiting for.

A single candle can illuminate an entire room.
A true friend like you dazzles up an entire lifetime.
Thanks for gifting the bright lights of your friendship.

Kosa Kata BM








WARA
1. wara (wara-wara) - pemberitahuan, pengumuman, pengisytiharan
2. bicarawara - rancangan temu bual (pewara dengan tetamu)
3. candawara - rancangan berbentuk permainan
4. jerayawara - ceramah, pameran, persembahan
5. purbawara - drama sebabak
6. sandiwara - lakonan
7. pewara - pembawa acara dalam sesuatu majlis, juruacara

(Sumber: Kamus Dewan, DBP)

Thursday, October 14, 2010

Sajak - Ceritera Belantara



















Ceritera Belantara

Sketsa belantara
Diwarnai landskap pepohon, sungai tenang
Dengan dingin air jernih
Kicau beburung merancakkan bicara
Mergastua
Menambahserikan keajaiban alam
Milik Tuhan

Barangkali atas nama kemajuan
Atau pembangunan tanpa mampan
Sketsa belantara terguris luka
Rakus noda di tangan manusia
Haloba lara di hati manusia
Tiada lagi kicau riang beburung
Tiada lagi riak renang ikan-ikan
Tiada lagi sandiwara bicara haiwan-haiwan
Yang ada cuma
Banjir lumpur
Yang ada cuma
Asap pencemaran klorofluorokarbon
Yang ada cuma
Khabar kebocoran ozon
Kemaharajalelaan radioaktif ultraungu
Yang mencekik hutan belantara
Yang membunuh habitat rimba

Cukuplah
Usah kita lukai hati belantara
Cukuplah
Usah kita hiris hati habitat rimba
Mari kita bangunkan kehidupan
Di sarwajagat ini
Tanpa menodai kesucian belantara
Tanpa mencemari kelestarian rimba!

Chai Wuang Zhuang
Dewan Siswa – Februari 2009

Tuesday, October 12, 2010

SHAHRUM BIN YUB














BIOGRAPHY of Shahrum Bin Yub
(Dengan izin...)

SHAHRUM BIN YUB was born April 21, 1934 in the small town of Tanjung Malim, Perak, Malaya (now Malaysia), the fourth child of Yub bin Rawan, a music instructor at the Malay Teachers' Training College. SHAHRUM’s mother died when he was two years old and his father took another wife by whom he had one daughter. At the age of three the boy was sent to stay with his stepgrandparents who lived first in Tanjung Belanja and then Pulau Tiga, rural villages along the Perak river. There he attended Malay-language primary schools. His family was poor, as was the area. The villages he lived in had no piped water or electricity, and he was expected to join the other children, taking his turn in the paddy fields, tending the goats or gathering vegetables to sell in the market.

In these years SHAHRUM first heard people speak of the orang asli, the aborigines, who led relatively primitive lives in the jungle. The villagers spoke pejoratively of them, calling them sakai (dog), and looked down on them, saying that they "didn't have religion" and bragging about how they cheated them in barter trade. Far from absorbing this general opinion, SHAHRUM instinctively felt that it was wrong; instead he gradually developed an absorbing interest in the jungle people.

When the Japanese occupied Malaya during World War II, they abducted SHAHRUM’s young stepmother. His father took a third wife from Pulau Tiga where SHAHRUM was then living. After the Japanese surrendered in 1945 SHAHRUM returned to his father's house in Tanjung Malim to attend the Methodist English School which had reopened after the war. In 1947 he was sent to the Anderson School in Ipoh, the capital of the state, for intermediate and high school (1947-1954). Here, studying in English, he became aware of the Chinese community that makes up part of Malaysia's multiracial society.

His second stepmother meanwhile died of tuberculosis and around 1950 his father took a fourth wife. The stepmothers, with whom SHAHRUM lived during holidays from Ipoh, gave him no warmth of love or understanding. On the contrary, he remembers being ordered to stay in the home and do the housework while his stepmothers went out; "I had no time to mix with the boys and to play," he says regretfully.

His long hours alone in the house did, however, give SHAHRUM time to study, which enabled him to receive on graduation the Cambridge Overseas School Certificate, Grade One, with a Credit in English. These honors earned him a Perak Malay Scholarship—offered by the State of Perak Fund Board—to further his studies in the United Kingdom. Having learned more about primitive peoples in high school, SHAHRUM chose anthropology as his course of study in England, with the intention of eventually working with the orang asli to help them improve their living conditions.

The University Tutorial College in London, where he took the preuniversity courses required for a General Certificate of Education (1955), was located not far from the British Museum. Although he had never been near a museum before he went to England, he visited the British Museum frequently and was impressed by his discovery that people from all walks of life were equally comfortable within its walls.

SHAHRUM continued his education at Leeds University in England, specializing in anthropology, history and geography; he received a Bachelor of Arts with Honors in 1960. While at Leeds he was approached by Haji Abdul Mubin Sheppard, an Irish Muslim-convert with the government of Malaya, who had been charged by the Malayan prime minister with setting up a national museum in Kuala Lumpur, the federal capital. It was to replace the old Selangor Museum which had been accidentally bombed by the Allied forces at the end of World War II. Sheppard asked SHAHRUM to join the project. Feeling that the museum offered him a prospect of working with the orang asli, SHAHRUM accepted the offer, which included a scholarship to take a postgraduate course in museology at the British Museum. His study of the arts and crafts of the Malay peninsula, and museum administration and related subjects, culminated in his receiving a diploma from the Museums Association of Great Britain in 1962.

When he arrived in London in 1955 SHAHRUM had met Maureen Shakesby, whose mother managed the rooms where he stayed. The couple were married in January 1959 while SHAHRUM was still at Leeds, and they returned to Malaya in 1962 with their daughter Yasmin. SHAHRUM immediately joined Sheppard's team as Curator of Ethnology of the incipient Muzium Negara (National Museum).

During these early years while SHAHRUM was working with Sheppard and developing his own dynamic concept of a "museum for the people," Maureen struggled to adjust to Malay customs and climate. That she succeeded admirably is evidenced by her husband's expressions of gratitude for the warm home she provided for him and their three daughters, Yasmin (born at Leeds at the end of 1959) and Sarah and Deborah (born in Kuala Lumpur in 1963 and 1965 respectively).

The team of which SHAHRUM became a member was faced with the exciting challenge of creating a museum from the ground up. The old prewar Selangor Museum, which had been built in 1900, was primarily a natural history museum which displayed a few ethnic Malay objects. "Its architectural style," according to a current National Museum guidebook, "was Flemish, and the display methods were Victorian." Between 1945 when the old museum was destroyed, and 1952 when a small (30' by 60') building was erected on the museum site to display a few national treasures, the capital was without any museum at all. The only government museum then in Malaya was the Perak Museum in Taiping, established in 1883; it is now under the jurisdiction of the National Museum. Six other museums under the jurisdiction of their respective states—Malacca, Negri Sembilan, Kedah, Penang, Sarawak and Sabah—were established between 1954 and 1965.

When Prime Minister Tunku Abdul Rahman (Ramon Magsaysay Awardee for Community Leadership in 1960 "for guidance of a multiracial society toward communal alliance and national identity") commissioned artist and architect Ho Kok Hoe to design a new museum in 1959, he gave instructions, at Sheppard's suggestion, that the building should incorporate Malay design and Malay motifs. The final plans were submitted to the prime minister only after Ho and Sheppard had made an extensive tour of northern Malaya studying traditional buildings.

The new museum, as designed and completed, is a three-storied structure, 362 feet long and 124 feet high at the central point, with 37,000 square feet of floor space. Located on a verdant and neatly landscaped slope at the entrance to the botanical gardens near the heart of the city, it provided the capital with its first public building of notably oriental design since the central railway station was built 50 years earlier—and the latter was of Moghul, not Malay inspiration.

The first floor appears to be supported on 26 concrete pillars extending the length of the building, as in a typical raised Malay house. Other Malay features include the high two-tiered roof over the narrow north-south axised central hall, and sloping roofs over the long east and west wings. Decorative woodcarving in traditional patterns are incorporated in the entrance doors and in the interior, and Malay designs were adapted to the precast-concrete entrance screen and the giant wrought iron grills.

The building was constructed with a government allocation of M$1.5 million (US$500,000), but generous private contributions financed the mosaic tiles of the long flight of stairs leading to the main doors and the enormous glass murals on the building's east and west facades (each 115 feet long and 20 feet high) which were executed by local artists and depict the history of the Malay people from the 15th century to the present.

The ground floor of the museum houses laboratories, a library, administrative offices and a gallery which was originally used for natural history exhibits. The building's entrance is on the first floor. One walks into the central gallery, a large hall paved with blue and white tile, a gift of the government of Pakistan. It is used for temporary—and frequently live—exhibitions. The west gallery is devoted to Malaysian culture, represented by life-size tableaux and dioramas, the east gallery to Malaysian history, prehistory, artifacts and crafts. These rooms were ready for the museum's opening in August 1963. Later under SHAHRUM’s directorship the second floor galleries were opened for permanent displays, the west gallery for natural history on February 8, 1968, and the east gallery as the Economic Activities Gallery on December 18,1972.

Anxious to avoid the unimaginative display arrangements of the old museum, Sheppard enlisted the aid of UNESCO—the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization—which sent L. P. Witteborg, formerly of the Museum of Natural History in New York, to advise on the building's floor plan. Permanent displays were designed with the aid of UNESCO advisers John Irwin and John Lowry, both of the Victoria and Albert Museum in London. The latter's "ubiquitous and unassuming proficiency" was so prized that when his term as UNESCO adviser was up, he was kept on as a "supernumerary officer" and was the only trained museum official on the staff at the time.

Sheppard was determined to open the new museum on August 31, 1963, Malaya's national day. Having refused suggestions of advisers that the institution open only one gallery at a time, his goal was to fill both halls on the first floor. Most of the exhibits from the old Selangor Museum had been lost so the museum mounted a publicity campaign to collect artifacts, especially Malay crafts. A difficulty was that, although Malay culture goes back several centuries, books and wooden artifacts, crafts and buildings have decayed in the heat and damp of the tropics and little remains that is even 100 years old.

One of SHAHRUM’s tasks was to register objects as they were received. With its new acquisitions, most of them gifts, the museum was able in the west hall to create tableaux of a royal wedding and circumcision ceremony, and to re-erect a traditional Chinese-Malay house, complete with furnished bridal chamber, which had been moved to the museum from the old port-city of Malacca. Dioramas showed Malay court and folk dances and plays, an ancient court orchestra and boys spinning giant Kelantan tops. The whole was assembled with the extensive aid of volunteer Malay, Chinese and European advisors.

In the east wing SHAHRUM was asked to set up a section on the orang asli. This entailed his collecting artifacts from their settlements and designing displays. Along with the history of aborigine cultures, Malay weapons, currency, medals, arts and crafts were exhibited.

The natural history section, which had been so prominent in the old museum, was almost omitted because of lack of an experienced taxidermist. But fortunately a scant eight months before the opening the museum acquired the services of Arne S. Dyhrberg, a Danish citizen, who provided training and direction in creating natural-habitat dioramas of Malayan birds and animals. The Natural History Gallery was further enhanced by donations of Malayan seashells, corals, insects and animal photographs.

The new museum was described by a reporter as "the fruit of an intensive effort by a small group of devoted amateurs who have toiled tirelessly to replace the rages of war." "Toiled tirelessly" was apt, but the term "devoted amateurs" was not entirely correct. Although, with the exception of Lowry, the museum lacked an experienced staff, many of the volunteers had specialized training or knowledge that they could impart. So useful have volunteer specialists been that the museum now has 10 to 15 Honorary Curators whose expertise it enlists; most now are from the faculty of the University of Malaya.

In the first 17 days it was open more than 100,000 people visited the new institution. Foreign experts were astonished at the orderly behavior of the people. Despite the throngs the 15 attendants, dressed in specially designed Malaya tunics, had little to do but keep an eye on the children. "One must, of course, make allowances for children," Sheppard is reported to have said cheerfully; "their curiosity is almost instinctively allied with their urge to touch."

Two months after the museum was opened Sheppard retired and was replaced by Lowry (1963-1967). In June 1964 SHAHRUM was appointed Acting Director of Museums, and in 1967 Director—his responsibilities including the nation's museums at Kuala Lumpur and at Taiping in Perak. As the first Malay to hold such position (the other directors had been British) SHAHRUM was determined "to prove that the Malay race could do something good for the country." He therefore threw himself into his work with vigor.

SHAHRUM wanted the museum, first of all, to be a place for all people, an obsession he attributes to his own humble background. In the past when museums were being established, they catered to a few serious scholars and the privileged few of society. By the time SHAHRUM became involved, however, the attitude among museum personnel worldwide was changing. It was understood, he says, that museums were "also important for the general public." Today museums are engaged in what he calls "three-dimensional education." One of their major tasks "is to bring before the eyes of the visitor the story of man, his art, his culture and civilization." Although such knowledge can be learned from books, a three-dimensional object, SHAHRUM believes, makes a greater impact and "leaves an indelible mark on one's mind."

The problem of a museum director is how to draw the general public into the building and once there, how to interest it in a "dull and lifeless object, yet an object which is part and parcel of the culture and civilization." The key to the latter, SHAHRUM learned in studying museum techniques in Britain, is the use of modern display methods, particularly the use of color. For example, color is essential in displaying a stone ax, which has no intrinsic beauty or attraction, but may be vital to understanding the development of a primitive people.

The colorful displays in the Malayan Culture Gallery have helped the Muzium Negara educate the public to understand how their ancestors lived and "better appreciate their artistic and intellectual heritage." In this multiracial (Malay, Chinese, Indian and aborigine), multilingual, multicultural and multireligious nation the museum has helped give the citizens of the Federation of Malaysia a sense of national identity, an identity based upon recognition of their composite society. As one of the staff has said, "we show too that there is no such thing as a 'pure' culture untouched by other cultures."

Mingling with the crowds in the exhibition galleries SHAHRUM notes with delight how members of one ethnic group admire the beautiful artifacts of the others. "This is where the museum has succeeded and will continue to succeed," he told an interviewer, "making various races understand and appreciate one another's cultures." For example, the exhibitions he himself mounted on the orang asli have shown that, even though they live a more "basic" life and are technologically primitive, the jungle people have intricate and meaningful religious and social customs.

Since his student days in London's popular museums SHAHRUM has understood that the permanent exhibitions can not fulfill either their educational or cultural functions unless people of all races and social levels are attracted to the museum and made to feel comfortable there. His beliefs were poignantly brought to the fore when, as acting director, he saw an elderly woman laboriously climb the steps to the museum, and then remove her shoes—as in a holy place—before entering with obvious trepidation and uncertainty. This experience reinforced his determination to make the museum less formidable to the common people, primarily by sponsoring a series of special programs designed to appeal to the general public.

In those early years, with a small staff, SHAHRUM, whom one observer described as projecting "an aura of disheveled, feverish, slightly disorganized activity," enthusiastically staged as many as 24 temporary exhibits a year—a workload which necessitated the appointment of a special curator of exhibitions. Always asking himself how to make a museum come alive, SHAHRUM saw that as many exhibits as possible were accompanied by live performances. When he presented an exhibit of snakes, for example, he invited a snake charmer to perform. Soon the museum began to stage live demonstrations of traditional games and pastimes—top spinning, kite flying—as well as shadow plays, traditional dancing and demonstrations by skilled craftsmen. In 1969 he arranged a 70 day program that prepared pilgrims for the procedures they would face on the hadj to Mecca.

At the same time he was seeking to involve the public in museum activities, he also began to develop the museum as a research facility, deeming it necessary to serve the scholar as well as the man in the street. To make it possible for students to study Malaysia's ancient arts and crafts in Malaysia and in one place (the major collections were abroad or scattered throughout the states) SHAHRUM helped the museum acquire an excellent collection of artifacts for research purposes. He accomplished this by continuous requests and diligent search. Major artifacts which were donated were given extensive press coverage in the hope that they would trigger other giving. On one occasion SHAHRUM himself was so zealous in his search for museum items that he nearly caused a scandal. In March 1968, armed with permission from the prime minister's office, he explored an all but abandoned palace in Jugra and took away a 100-year-old iron box, containing nothing but newspapers—which he considered of antiquarian interest only. The receptacle, however, turned out to be highly revered and its immediate return was demanded. It was dispatched posthaste to Jugra where, according to a newspaper account, "thousands gathered with their territorial chiefs to welcome back the 'magic' box."

A new greatly expanded Natural History Gallery was opened the same year in the west wing of the second floor. The permanent exhibition contains an outstanding collection of Southeast Asian shells and corals, made possible with funds from Shell (Malaysia) Oil Company, and specimens of Malaysian fauna which were collected by museum teams between 1964 and 1967. The work of creating the exhibition hall was begun by Dyhrberg and completed by a Malaysian, Wee Ho Cheng, after the former's contract expired. The old natural history gallery on the ground floor was converted into space for the Education Services Division.

In 1972 a gallery on Economic Activities was established in the east wing of the second floor. It features dioramas of tin mining, rubber planting and forestry, as well as photographic displays, models and artifacts of various other aspects of agriculture and industry in Malaysia. Both government agencies and commercial organizations contributed to the establishment of exhibits.

In 1970 SHAHRUM was made Acting Director General of the Museums of Malaysia, a post which entailed less a change of function than a change in title, and in 1972 he became Director General. As such he presides over the Muzium Negara, the Taiping Museum and the new Archeological Museum in Kedah. He is also chairman of the Malaysian National Committee of the International Council of Museums— associated with UNESCO and based in Paris—and of the Museums Association of Malaysia.

The Muzium Negara is organized administratively into three sections—Museum, Administration and Antiquity. The Museum Section is responsible for exhibitions, displays and collections, and SHAHRUM continued to expand these to make the museum a place of interest to the people of Kuala Lumpur as well as to foreign tourists who constitute about one-fourth of the visitors. Throughout the 1970s his crowd-drawing presentations reached ever greater heights. Exhibitions in 1971, including ones on world currencies and on the armed forces, drew a record five million people.

His most spectacular innovation concerned the coordination of museum exhibits with current events that generated a great deal of publicity. This proved a major factor in drawing people into the museum. For example, after the death in August 1973 of popular Malaysian actor, director, singer and composer Puteh Ramlee, SHAHRUM organized a retrospective featuring, along with the idol's personal effects, daily screenings of his films. Popular singers and film stars were invited to perform and the museum was kept open until midnight, prompting the Minister of Culture to ask SHAHRUM whether he was running the city's newest nightclub. The 250,000th visitor to this exhibition, a nine year-old boy, received five Ramlee records, a copy of the actor's biography and two free passes to the Ramlee Cinema for the rest of his life. The millionth visitor, a schoolteacher, received two round trip tickets to Jakarta, Indonesia, and M$400 to spend while there. In 1974 an exhibit on nature conservation drew 90,000 visitors in the first five days. Included in the exhibit was a 200-pound fetus of an elephant; its mother had been shot at Sungei Panjang in Sabak Beman. An unusual gift from a grateful museum goer, SHAHRUM promptly had the fetus stuffed and put on display. The five millionth visitor to the museum that year received a stuffed bird.

To coincide with the Muhammad Ali-Joe Bugner heavyweight title fight held in Malaysia in 1975 SHAHRUM staged an exhibition on the history of boxing, complete with demonstration matches between local pugilists. World famous heavyweight fighter Joe Frazier was invited to award prizes to that year's millionth visitor. When SHAHRUM had applied to the government for funding for this exhibition the idea was considered so absurd that his request was rejected. Nevertheless he went ahead with the project, banking correctly on the assumption that money would be forthcoming when the exhibit's popularity was proven. "You have to be a little mad to run a museum," SHAHRUM concedes.

To the inevitable criticism that some of these exhibitions were not of high enough scientific or cultural value, SHAHRUM answers that the function of a museum is to present and interpret not only the past but the present. In addition these popular functions bring more than 100,000 people per month to the museum where they are exposed to the fine permanent exhibits as well.

The museum is under the Ministry of Culture, Youth and Sports which must approve temporary exhibitions. This mild supervision came about after the museum held an exhibit on the Soviet Union which proved to be a political embarrassment. As for criticism, SHAHRUM generally disregards it. He was faulted, for instance, for permanently locating Malaysia's first VIP executive airplane on museum grounds. "Even the mayor of Kuala Lumpur said to take it out," he says, "but I refused because children liked to come there [to see it] and from there they would step into the museum." On the museum grounds he has also installed a steam engine, a 150-year-old wooden palace from Trengganu State and some cannon.

The museum holds a special exhibition for children each year in October or November, such as the international children's art exhibit in 1976 and the displays of dolls and airplanes of the world in 1977 and 1978. It usually includes, as well, the work produced in the museum's children's art classes which are held throughout the year.

SHAHRUM takes great pride in having succeeded in making the museum thoroughly accessible to all people, young and old, rich and poor, but he thinks of it particularly as a source of pleasure for the poor— "the settlers and squatters around the area." What other entertainments or activities do they have, he asks rhetorically; the rich have many ways to fill their leisure time, but how do the poor "pass the time during the weekend?" With their well being in mind he consistently refuses to charge an entrance fee and keeps the museum doors open from 9:30 a.m. (now 9:00) to 6:00 p.m. every day of the year except two Islamic high holy days; as of 1979 he plans to keep them open every day. During special events the museum stays open until 9:30 or 10:00 at night.

For the young, under his supervision the Administrative Section developed the Education Services Division. This unit, which seeks to link the museum with community educational needs, provides information requested by teachers, arranges for talks on selected topics relating to museum displays and, on occasion, organizes temporary exhibits for the schools. Short term courses are offered—basic taxidermy for secondary school science teachers and traditional woodcarving for industrial arts instructors and lower secondary students. In 1974 a Junior Nature Club was established for standard six pupils and art classes for children ages 3-16. This section also publishes pamphlets, such as guides to historical monuments and catalogues of specific exhibits. The library is available to teachers and students.

The Documentation Division, also under Administration, is a model for the museums of the area. Every object is photographed, measured, and its price and location in the museum noted. When an official from Hong Kong came to study basic techniques at Muzium Negara in 1973 he extolled its documentation system, commenting, "with such a catalogue no items of historical importance can be lost."

Since much of Malay culture has been handed down through dance and drama, slides have been made of such performances, as well as of fast disappearing traditional pastimes. The latter includes cock-fighting, a village sport which is now illegal. To photograph cockfighting for posterity, SHAHRUM slipped both cocks and handlers across the border into Thailand. The museum is also interested in oral traditions and supported a seminar on the Collection, Study and Use of Oral Traditions at the University of Malaya in 1973.

For a number of years SHAHRUM advocated legislation to tighten the loopholes in the laws preventing artifacts of national interest from being exported. The new Antiquities Act which was passed in 1976 gives him, as Director General of Museums, significant power to determine the value and antiquity of an object, to prohibit or to license it for export, and to buy any item "declared necessary to the government." To exercise these powers he set up an Enforcement Division within the museum, headed by an officer sent to receive special training in Chinese ceramics (a major object of export) at the Guggenheim Museum in New York. The unit inspects antique shops to ascertain whether they are obeying the law or whether they have items of great national or historic importance for sale. If the latter, the museum buys them with funds obtained from licences and export fees required of antique dealers, and from private donations and government allocations. It is not fair, SHAHRUM points out, to tell dealers they cannot export objects of value unless the government is willing to buy them. "If they're important to the country, they must be important to the museum," he remarks.

SHAHRUM has also urged, in his official capacity, that museums around the world join forces to prevent national treasures from being smuggled out of their respective countries. As a first step, in 1972, he urged the formation of a Museums Association of Southeast Asia.

The Antiquities Section, the third of the threefold division of the museum, is becoming more and more important. It is in charge of archeological excavations and preserving historical monuments. During SHAHRUM’s early years with the museum a number of major archeological sites were discovered in various parts of Malaysia where metal (so-called Dongson) drums were found which date from the second to fifth centuries A.D. SHAHRUM has since established a museum at one of these sites (Bujang Valley, Merbok, Kedah) and has arranged for his staff to receive further archeological training in India, Indonesia, the Philippines and Australia. In 1974 he announced a program to preserve old forts throughout the peninsula. Besides their historical value, he noted, they could become major tourist attractions.

After the museum began its systematic survey for historical sites, and identified 300 buildings, sites and monuments as important, SHAHRUM advocated that the government amend the existing laws and declare any building more than 100 years old as historic. In such case the owner would not be allowed to destroy, remove or extend the building, or cultivate, change or destroy the site; penalties for vandalism would be strict. The 1976 Antiquities Act, while not automatically declaring all buildings more than 100 years old historic, gives the Director General of Museums power—with the approval of the Minister of Culture and the appropriate state ministers--to publish and amend the list of ancient monuments and historical sites, and to prevent or to license any alterations to such sites or buildings.

In 1976 SHAHRUM launched yet another project for bringing the museum and the people together: he set up a mobile van unit to tour the rural areas during the school year. The unit has 20 showcases with sections on natural history, coins and stamps, wildlife protection, stone age implements, the coming of Islam and antiquities. This move to bring the museum to the countryside received an overwhelming response. In two days in Muar alone about 10,000 school children saw the exhibits. SHAHRUM now has plans to increase the number of vans.

Since his personal tour of the prisons last year he also has plans to take temporary exhibits to prisoners, both men and women. He wants to give them something to look at, something to think about, to help them pass their dreary days of confinement.

The principal funding for all the museum's activities comes from the government which, SHAHRUM claims, "is generous with funds." He acknowledges, however, that this generosity is forthcoming because the museum has proved its worth. SHAHRUM also makes a point of maintaining excellent relations with individual government officials. A minister who is invited to open an exhibition, he reasons, is more likely to be sympathetic toward the museum than one who is not. Similarly, he cultivates the friendship of members of parliament whose support is needed when the government's budget is debated, and of treasury officials at all levels.

When the museum needs money for a particular project, SHAHRUM himself is certain to be waiting outside the pertinent office first thing in the morning while the official's "mind is fresh." He always works through channels though. For if you start at the top and are turned down, he points out, you have nowhere else to go. But above all, he operates on the theory that fundraising is a question of attitude: if you have a positive approach, you get what you want. He also maintains excellent relations with the press, making himself always available to them for questions or interviews.

The museum's annual budget has two entries: running expenses and development costs. Running expenses amount to about M$2 million (nearly US$1 million) annually. Development expenses vary, depending on needs: e.g., conservation of historical monuments, transportation to archeological excavations and the like. In 1978 these expenses also came to about M$2 million, a figure which SHAHRUM says, compared to other government expenditures, "is only a drop in the ocean, but that drop is precious to us."

In certain instances businesses will come forward to assist the museum with particular projects. For example in 1978, when the museum planned an exhibit of the "Living Crafts of Malaysia," both the exhibition and an accompanying book were funded by Mobil Oil Company. Other firms to offer their services are gambling firms; they are very generous, SHAHRUM comments, "because God is being generous to them."

The fact that the museum is a government, rather than a private, institution causes some difficulty with regard to getting and retaining staff because government salaries are not as generous as those of the private sector. Moreover, the museum is not an arena from which to launch another career. It is a "closed service," explains SHAHRUM; there is no opportunity to move laterally into other government service—to become a state secretary or an ambassador—or even to have a private sector job waiting on retirement. (In only one respect is museum service munificent: a person with a Ph.D. receives a higher salary from the museum than from the university.) In consequence, SHAHRUM confides, we inculcate in the staff "the idea that working for the museum is something more wonderful than money!"

One way to promote this is giving colleagues every opportunity to develop themselves. Although he himself does not have a doctorate, it is his dream to see that before he retires each member of his staff earns a Ph.D. This is feasible because the government provides at least three scholarships a year for foreign study. In this way SHAHRUM hopes to build a very strong core of personnel. With strength, he asserts, "we will bloom; now we just build."

In order to keep staff members happy SHAHRUM sees that they get promotions whenever possible, even if it means creating new posts or higher title designations. Too, he considers it part of his duty to keep his staff stimulated so that the work does not become boring and the people do not become stale.

A sense of community spirit, SHAHRUM feels, is also essential to the smooth functioning of the institution. He treats his staff of 220 (up from the 30 of 1963) as a family. "We get together often," he says. "We have our society to help people if there is a death in the family, or if somebody is ill, we visit him. If anybody goes overseas, we go to the airport and garland him. So we are really a small family in a big way."

The director and his happy staff have put on 250 special exhibits in the past 10 years and have lured some 26 million people into the museum—18 million in the last four years compared to 3.5 million in the first four years of the institution's being. Nevertheless, SHAHRUM, whom a western journalist described as "someone who charges life leaning forward at a 45� angle," is always busy with plans for the future. In 1976 he began lobbying the government to purchase 4.3 acres of adjoining land to build an extension to the present building. Two days after the announcement of his receipt of the Magsaysay Award this request was approved. He is now enthusiastically planning for a new structure that will incorporate all the most modern facilities. A new edifice has always been his dream, he confesses. "I work in a building which somebody else has built; I want to create something of my own."

The new extension will be provided with a theater for lectures, films and live cultural performances keyed to tourists as well as to the Malaysian public. The displays, SHAHRUM enthuses, will be modern, didactic, set off by a strong use of color and with press-button information where needed. He plans to have a room in which children and the blind can touch exhibits, a ramp for wheelchairs, and a room where collectors clubs (e.g. stamp collectors) and associations can meet.

SHAHRUM is a collector himself. He collects matchboxes and he and his wife together collect art—but we buy "only after the museum's needs have been met" he assures the interviewer. Of the former, he has almost enough for an exhibition of his own, he says.

Described as a "gay, dashing personality" and for many years fond of wide bow ties, he also gardens, plays ping pong and considers himself very much a family man. He travels frequently to visit other museums for ideas—for example his trip to Japan in 1974 to study open-air displays, and he has helped set up three or four state museums in Malaysia in the past few years, although he has no administrative relationship to them. A writer as well as a scholar, he has authored a number of articles in both Malay and English on Malay arts and crafts, and he edits the Federation Museums Journal. Between 1967 and 1972 he taught a course on Malay Culture and Artifacts at the University of Malaya, and he gives a course now and then to acquaint tourist guides with the Muzium Negara's permanent exhibits. The museum and the Tourist Association, he says, "work hand in glove with one another."

SHAHRUM has been recognized for his accomplishments and contributions by society. He was awarded the Pingat Jasa Kebaktian (Meritorious Service Medal) by the State of Malacca in 1972, and in 1976 the Federal Government named him Kesatrin Mangku Negara (Knight of the Most Distinguished Order of the Defender of the Realm).

September 1978
Manila

REFERENCES:

Aziz, Abdul bin Yahaya. "Malaysia's National Museum," Free World. Manila: U.S. Information Service . Vol. 16, no.5, May 1967.

Cheah Boon Kheng. "Muzium Negara's Happiest Asset," Straits Times. Singapore. April 6, 1973.

Government of Malaysia. Antiquities Act, 1976, Laws of Malaysia Act 168.

Joseph, Percy. "Muzium Negara: A Standing Monument to Nation's Culture," Straits Times. Singapore. August 31, 1963.

Kassim, Mohammad bin Haji Ali. "The Role of the Museum in Cultural Tourism." Tourist Guide Training Course. Kuala Lumpur. N.d. (Mimeographed.)

Koffend, John B. "A Museum for the People," The Asia Magazine. Hong Kong. April 21, 1974.

Malay Mail. October 30, 1963, October 7 and 20,1969; July 14,1970; September 9, 1974; January 3, 6 and 13 and July 6 and 30, 1976; December 1, 1977.

Morais, J. Victor. Who's Who in Malaysia. 1977-1978. Kuala Lumpur: J. Victor Morais. 1978.

Muzium Negara, Kuala Lumpur: Opening of the Economic Activities Gallery. Program. December 18, 1972.

Muzrum Negara, Kuala Lumpur: Opening of the Natural History Gallery. Program. February 8, 1968.

National Museum in Kuala Lumpur. Brochure. Kuala Lumpur: Department of Tourism. N.d.

Pillai, John. "Preserving Our Historical Heritage," Sunday Straits Times. Singapore. May 4, 1975.

Salleh, Mohammed. "Museum for the People," New Straits Times. Singapore. December 17, 1975.

Shahrum bin Yub. "The Challenges of Today's National Museums. " Presentation made to Group Discussion. Transcript. Ramon Magsaysay Award Foundation,

Manila. September 4, 1978. (Typewritten:)

______. Mah Meri Sculpture. Kuala Lumpur: Museums Department. 1969.

______. Transcript of interview for "Malaysia Speaks," aired August 1965, 6:45 p.m.

Sheppard, Haji Abdul Mubin. "Treasure Trove," Straits Times. Singapore. November 5, 1963.

______. "Opening of the National Museum of the Federation of Malaya on 31st August, 1963," Magazine clipping. No source and date.

Straits Times. Singapore. June 25, 1964; June 28, 1969; February 20 and March 17, 1973; May 4 and 25, 1975; July 15, 1976.

Monday, October 11, 2010

Sketsa Landskap
















Kek Lok Si, Pulau Pinang.

Sunday, October 10, 2010

Mesyuarat AJK MESA 2010




















AJK Methodist English School Alumni (MESA) Tg. Malim telah berjaya mengadakan mesyuarat AJK kali Ke-2 bertempat di Bilik Gerakan, SMK Methodist, 35900 Tg. Malim pada 10 Oktober 2010.
Mesyuarat ditangguhkan pada pukul 12.00 tengah hari. AJK MESA berkesempatan untuk makan tengah hari dan meraikan hari ulang tahun kelahiran salah seorang AJKnya. Hidup MESA! Hidup MES! MES Boleh!

Thursday, October 7, 2010

Justice Lai Kew Chai

A Tribute to the Late Justice Lai Kew Chai
(dengan izin...)

Justice Lai Kew Chai
(7 February 1941 – 27 February 2006)

Lai Kew Chai was born on 7 February 1941 at Tanjong Malim in Perak, West Malaysia. He received his early education at the Methodist English School at Tanjong Malim and later, at the Methodist Boys Secondary School in Kuala Lumpur. He obtained his Bachelor of Laws (Hons) degree from the University of Singapore 
in 1966.

After graduation, he commenced practice with Messrs Lee & Lee. He soon made a name for himself as a litigation lawyer, particularly in company, banking and shipping law. In the early part of 1980, he had the rare distinction of appearing as counsel for the respondents before the Privy Council in Malayan Plant (Pte) Ltd v Moscow Narodny Bank Ltd [1980] 2 MLJ 53.

Notwithstanding his busy practice, he was active in the affairs of the Law Society, the Board of Legal Education and as a member of the Military Court of Appeal. He was Vice-President of the Law Society from 1980 to 1981 and the Director of the Post-Graduate Practical Law Course (‘PLC’) for the training of lawyers for admission to the Bar. He served on the Military Court of Appeal from 1977 to July 1981. He was elevated to the Supreme Court Bench in August 1981, thereby becoming the first local law graduate to achieve this singular honour, at the age of 40. Soon after his elevation to the Bench, he became Chairman of the Board of Legal Education (‘the Board’). It was during his tenure as Chairman of the Board that the PLC Manuals that are currently being used by the Board took shape. He took great pains to go through these Manuals personally night after night, for weeks on end with the then Deputy Chairman of the Board and its Director, Richard Ennis, before the Manuals were eventually approved by the Board. His efforts have greatly benefited all our lawyers who have attended the PLC since 1982. He served with great distinction as Chairman of the Board from 1981 to 1993.

Many distinct qualities distinguished Justice Lai from others of his generation. One was love and respect for his parents and his family. Although he came from a reasonably large family, he took great pains to visit his parents in Kuala Lumpur regularly and provided them with material and other comforts until they both passed away. In this respect, Justice Lai was a very filial son. He also took great pride in his wife, Dorothy, and their two children, Stanley and Amy. Although he was not a man prone to sentimentality or an overflow of emotion, the very mention of his wife and children and more recently, his grandchildren, invariably brought a glow of pride and joy to his face. He doted on his family. His family was his life.

Another was that he loved the Bar. His heart was always with the Bar. In 1980, soon after he was elected Vice-President of the Law Society, the government decided, as a matter of policy, to allow foreign lawyers to practise in Singapore. He was then a partner in Messrs Lee & Lee and all eyes in the Council and the profession were on him to see whether he would stand with the Council in opposing the move. To his great credit and no doubt at great personal sacrifice to himself, he stood by the Council. At the annual dinner of the Bar held in July 1980, the then President of the Law Society had Council members like Lai Kew Chai in mind when he spoke these words:

It is seldom that the President makes reference to his own Council at a gathering like this. But today is an exception. May I say that I am extremely proud of the Council. No President could have asked for support and guidance from a better Council in these difficult times.

One distinct feature of his tenure on the Bench was that he took great pains to help younger members of the Bar – particularly when they were up against more experienced and eloquent opponents. Although the younger members of the Bar knew that he was a formidable judge to appear before, they took comfort in the fact that they were before a judge who knew and understood their problems and difficulties. Many younger members of the Bar appreciated his wise counsel in the privacy of his Chambers after a gruelling day before him in court.

It would be evident to anyone who had occasion to discuss the law with him that he read widely and developed (consciously or subconsciously) a philosophy of his own. He gave expression to his philosophy in his utterances on the Bench and in many of his judgments. He was also a lover of law books and took great pride in his acquisition of the latest edition of any particular work or new publication that had just reached the shelves of the bookshops at Chancery Lane in London or other parts of the Commonwealth. In the early years of his practice, he was a regular visitor to the Malayan Law Journal at Malacca Street where he would join Dr Bashir Mallal and his friends for lunch. Such lunches were often graced by High Court judges from Singapore and Malaysia and other legal luminaries.

In addition, he was deeply religious and although he was fully conscious of the fact that religion, law and morals can be separated, he appeared to believe, like a famous former Master of the Rolls, that many of the fundamental principles of our law have been derived from the Christian religion.1 He was a regular church-goer and participated fully in the activities of the Anglican Church of which he was a Chancellor from 1993 till the date of his death. It can be said that he was a judge who truly divided each day into:

Six hours in sleep
In law’s grave studies six
Four spent in prayer
The rest on Nature fix.2

In a span of some 25 years on the Bench, Justice Lai penned a total of more than 530 judgments, most of which adorn our law reports. Two of the judgments bear mentioning as they show the scope and breadth of his learning.

In Shiffon Creations3 the question before the Court of Appeal was whether the court had jurisdiction to award damages in lieu of specific performance. Justice Lai in delivering the judgment of the court concluded in these words:

Although the authoritative value of Denton v Stewart was severely dented, it has to be recognized (as was expressly noted by Eldon LC) that “in very special cases” equity did award damages. Two points are noteworthy. First, it was only in very exceptional cases that the Court of Chancery had awarded equitable damages. Secondly, although the power to award equitable damages was very occasionally exercised by the Court of Chancery, this jurisdiction did not have sufficient time and opportunity to develop before it was superseded by Lord Cairns’ Act, with the result that its scope was uncertain and indeterminate. That state of case law in equity stood in great contrast to the much wider jurisdiction of equity which was statutorily conferred by Lord Cairns’ Act. In the result, in the absence of the fullest arguments we would reserve this issue for another day. For these reasons, the appeal is dismissed with costs.

Finally, it is not possible to end without making reference to the Sumitomo Bank case.4 In that case, he was bold enough to discard the well known English case of Lister v Stubbs5 and break new ground in words that are typical of his style:

I am persuaded that Lister v Stubbs is wrong and its undesirable and unjust consequences should not be imported and perpetuated as part of our law. … In my view a Court in Singapore when exercising its equitable jurisdiction must reflect the mores and sense of justice of the society which it serves. Unlike Legatt J, who is constrained by the doctrine of binding precedents, I am in a sense greatly relieved that I do not have to labour under such an impediment and am therefore free to administer justice according to law.

In 1994, Lord Templeman in delivering the judgment of the Privy Council in AG of Hong Kong v Reid 6 referred to the judgment of Justice Lai in the Sumitomo Bank case in the following words:
The authorities which followed Lister v Stubbs do not cast any new light on that decision. Their Lordships are more impressed with the decision of Lai Kew Chai J in the Sumitomo Bank Case … . After considering in detail all the relevant authorities Lai Kew Chai J determined robustly … that Lister v Stubbs was wrong and that its undesirable and unjust consequences should not be imported and perpetuated as part of the law of Singapore … . [Emphasis added]

The Bar should be proud that from amongst its fold emerged a unique individual who was a filial son, a doting family man, a friend of the Bar, a staunch supporter of legal education and scholarship and above all, a judge respected not only for his learning, aplomb and gravitas, but one who was prepared to determine difficult issues of the day before him ‘robustly’. There in a word, you have the measure of the man.

Dorothy and the children have lost a loving husband and father, the Bar an illustrious son, the Church one of its faithful stalwarts, the State one of its enlightened judicial minds, and the writer a dear old friend. We want Dorothy and the children to know that he will be fondly remembered by the Bar.

T P B Menon
Wee Swee Teow & Co